A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD.During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward.The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.
In 9 AD, three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius.
By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany; Austria, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hessen and the western Rhineland, however, were Roman provinces.
After the United States, it is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.
Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr (main centres: Dortmund and Essen).
Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm.